## About this Study

For decades investigators are groups have been recording Electronic Voice Phenomena. Many of these investigators claim that they have received intelligible answers to their line of questions. Where the answers they received truly an intelligent response? or was it simply chance that random words captured on recording match or answer their questions. It is our directive in this study to establish the statistical likelihood that a randomly spoken word will answer random questions asked.

## Probability

**Probability**(or

**likelihood**) is a measure or estimation of how likely it is that something will happen or that a statement is true. Probabilities are given a value between 0 (0% chance or

*will not happen*) and 1 (100% chance or

*will happen*). The higher the degree of probability, the more likely the event is to happen, or, in a longer series of samples, the greater the number of times such event is expected to happen.

When dealing with

__experiments__that are

__random__and

__well-defined__in a purely theoretical setting (like tossing a fair coin), probabilities describe the statistical number of outcomes considered divided by the number of all outcomes (tossing a fair coin twice will yield HH with probability 1/4, because the four outcomes HH, HT, TH and TT are possible). When it comes to practical application, however, the word

*probability*does not have a singular direct

__definition__. In fact, there are two major categories of

**probability interpretations**, whose adherents possess conflicting views about the fundamental nature of probability:

*Objectivists :*

assign numbers to describe some objective or physical state of affairs. The most popular version of objective probability is frequentist probability, which claims that the probability of a random event denotes the

*relative frequency of occurrence*of an experiment's outcome, when repeating the experiment. This interpretation considers probability to be the relative frequency "in the long run" of outcomes. A modification of this is propensity probability, which interprets probability as the tendency of some experiment to yield a certain outcome, even if it is performed only once.

*Subjectivists*

*:*

Assign numbers per subjective probability, i.e., as a degree of belief. The most popular version of subjective probability is Bayesian probability, which includes expert knowledge as well as experimental data to produce probabilities. The expert knowledge is represented by some (subjective) prior probability distribution. The data is incorporated in a likelihood function. The product of the prior and the likelihood, normalized, results in a posterior probability distribution that incorporates all the information known to date. Starting from arbitrary, subjective probabilities for a group of agents, some Bayesians claim that all agents will eventually have sufficiently similar assessments of probabilities, given enough evidence.